A profit and loss statement, also known as an income statement or statement of earnings, is a financial statement that summarizes the revenues, costs, and expenses incurred during a specific period of time, typically a fiscal quarter or year. It provides an overview of a company’s ability to generate profits by increasing revenues, reducing costs, or both.
The structure of a profit and loss statement typically includes the following sections:
- Revenue: This section lists the total revenue generated by the company during the period. It includes sales revenue, fees, subscriptions, or any other income streams specific to the business.
- Cost of Goods Sold (COGS): COGS represents the direct costs associated with producing or delivering the goods or services sold by the company. This includes raw materials, manufacturing costs, and direct labor.
- Gross Profit: Gross profit is calculated by subtracting the COGS from the total revenue. It represents the profit before considering operating expenses.
- Operating Expenses: This section includes expenses incurred in the day-to-day operations of the business, such as salaries, rent, utilities, marketing, and administrative costs.
- Operating Income: Operating income, also known as operating profit or earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT), is calculated by subtracting the operating expenses from the gross profit.
- Other Income and Expenses: This section includes any non-operating income or expenses, such as interest income, interest expenses, gains or losses from the sale of assets, or any extraordinary items.
- Net Income: Net income, also referred to as net profit or the bottom line, is calculated by subtracting the other income and expenses from the operating income.
A profit and loss statement provides a snapshot of a company’s financial performance over a specific period. It helps stakeholders, including investors, creditors, and management, assess the profitability and overall health of the business. It’s important to note that the profit and loss statement is just one component of a comprehensive set of financial statements that also includes the balance sheet and cash flow statement.